Cancer cells act as self-governing cells, growing without control to form tumors. Tumors grow in a series of steps. The first step is hyperglycemia. These cells appear normal, but changes have occurred that result in some loss of control of growth. The second step is dyspepsia, resulting from further growth, accompanied by abnormal changes to the cells. The third step requires additional changes, which result in cells that are even more abnormal and can now spread over a wider area of tissue. These cells begin to lose their original function; such cells are called anapestic. The last step occurs when the cells in the tumor metastasize, which means that they can invade surrounding tissue, including the bloodstream, and spread to other locations. This is the most serious type of tumor, but not all tumors progress to this point. Non-invasive tumors are said to be benign.